Copper sulphate reference electrodes (CSE) are the most commonly used reference electrodes for measuring potentials of underground structures and also for those exposed to fresh water. It is not suitable for use in a chloride electrolyte as the chloride ions will migrate through the porous plug and contaminate the CSE.
Permanent Cu/CuSO4 reference electrodes provide accurate and reliable potential measurements on buried metallic structures particularly aboveground storage tanks. Their placement in close proximity to protected structures permits readings which are more exact and less affected by fluctuating soil conditions than those obtained by portable electrodes. This is a permanent copper/copper sulphate reference electrode with a proven track record for stability. Long-life performance is achieved through a rugged design, which includes impact resistant PVC tubing. The tubing houses a 99.99% pure copper element and a supersaturated solution of copper sulphate.
Portable reference cell can be used to conduct potential measurements on all types of buried structures. The cell is made with solid copper element, which is housed in impact-resistant plastic tubes. To ensure the copper elements remain electrically stable, copper sulphate crystals are provided with each cell.
portable reference cells can be used to take electrical potentials on buried structures, such as pipelines, underground storage tanks, and reinforced concrete structures.
Zinc is sometimes used as a reference electrode since the potential of zinc is relatively stable. Zinc is actually a pseudo-reference electrode since the potential of zinc can change as the environment changes. For underground use, the zinc electrode is packaged in a cloth bag containing the same backfill as used around zinc anodes. In water, zinc electrodes are used
Silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) reference electrodes are used for measurements in seawater. The Ag-AgCl electrode is also used in concrete structures. There are two types; in one the silver electrode is exposed to seawater and in the other the electrode is immersed in a potassium chloride (KCl) solution contained in a cylinder with a porous plug.
Ag/AgCl reference cell is designed to obtain potential readings on structures located in brackish or salt waters. The cell is made from a silver element, which is contained in an inert tube and surrounded by a supersaturated gel of silver chloride on structures located in aqueous environments containing high chloride concentrations, such as salt water, reference cell has the proven electrical stability for long-life performance.
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